analyze activities conducted across many states H e a l t h M e d i c a l

analyze activities conducted across many states H e a l t h M e d i c a l


Please note that each and every assignment has its own word limit.

Evidence-based policymaking is relevant for all levels of government. State agencies play an essential role in creating and using evidence to implement policies and collect data while operating programs. Often, effective evidence-based policymaking requires a healthy partnership between the federal government and states, with some federal programs relying on state-level actions and support. For example, many social services and environmental programs are operated by states on behalf of the federal government, with states collecting data, making eligibility determinations, and conducting enforcement activities. The data collected through these normal operations can be analyzed to ensure programs operate as intended. The federal government can also help support and enable activities at the state-level. In some cases, data may be needed to analyze activities conducted across many states and generate comparisons to determine what implementation strategies are most effective for a given program. Just as many programs operate through a collaboration between the federal government and state governments, evidence-based policymaking activities can occur as partnerships between different government jurisdictions (, 2018).

Federalism plays a foundational role in structuring public expectations about how the United States will respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, as both an unprecedented public-health crisis and an economic recession. As in prior situations, state governments are expected to be primary sites of governing authority, especially when it comes to immediate public-health needs. It is assumed that the federal government will supply critical counter-cyclical measures to stabilize the economy for significant revenue shortfalls in the states. Yet, there are reasons to believe that these expectations will not be fulfilled, especially when it comes to the critical juncture of the COVID-19 pandemic. Though the federal government can engage in counter-cyclical spending to stabilize the economy, existing policy instruments vary in leveraging that capacity. This leverage depends on how decentralized policy arrangements affect the implementation of both discretionary emergency policies and automatic stabilization programs such as Unemployment Insurance, Medicaid, and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Evidence on the U.S. response to COVID-19 to date suggests the need for significant revisions in intergovernmental fiscal policy (Rucco et al, 2020).

It is at the state level that public policy shifts can occur. Although the U.S. Congress grabs all the headlines with its rancor and outrageous behavior, state legislatures often go unnoticed and accomplish a great deal of legislative efficiency. More and more, national advocacy groups are finding a successful tactic in taking complex, and sometimes controversial, topics to state legislatures. Viewed as incubators for future, broader legislation states tackle social and economic issues in a more targeted environment (, 2018).

References (2018). Retrieved from…

Rocco, P., Béland, D., & Waddan, A. (2020) Stuck in neutral? Federalism, policy instruments, and counter-cyclical responses to COVID-19 in the United States. Policy and Society. 39(3). pp 458-477. doi: 10.1080/14494035.2020.1783793 (2018). Retrieved from…

Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.) Include at least one scholarly reference and appropriate in-text citations and Address all points on the DQ. One point will be deducted for not addressing each item mentioned above. Remember that presenting someone else’s work as your own is plagiarism.

  • Ask a probing question.
  • Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
  • Make a suggestion.
  • Expand on your colleague’s posting.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.



American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.