bettonviel et al ., 2016 ). carbohydrate metabolismand lastly W r i t i n g

bettonviel et al ., 2016 ). carbohydrate metabolismand lastly W r i t i n g

This will be my third time trying to get this answered

Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Analyze how aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism affects optimal energy transfer.
  2. Explain the advantages of having diverse sources of energy.
  3. Analyze the body’s energy systems and their contributions to exercise intensity and duration.
  4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the energy spectrum of exercise in the formulation of optimal training regimens.


Our ability to move depends on how well our bodies are able to use food to release the energy required by our muscles. This week we will examine the body’s diverse energy systems and how they work together to extract energy from food in order to transfer that energy during rest and the stress of exercise. We will also evaluate the effectiveness of anaerobic and aerobic processes in the performance of exercise activities. Additionally, we will analyze how specific energy systems in the body contribute to the duration and intensity of sport-specific exercise activities.

Required Resources


  1. Katch, V., McArdle, W., & Katch, F. (2015). Essentials of exercise physiology. (5th ed.). Retrieved from Exercise. Retrieved from the Films On Demand database in the Ashford University Library.
  2. Garner, S. (Writer & Producer), & Tilson, L. (Director). (2003). Energy systems in the body [Video segment]. In M. McAuliffe (Executive Producer), Principles of training: Preparing for a purpose [Streaming video]. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.
  3. Rees, R. (Director). (2013) Cell respiration [Streaming video]. Retrieved from the Films on Demand database.
  4. Thomas, S. E., & Noubani, F. (Writers). (2014). Cell metabolism and respiration[Streaming video]. Retrieved from the Films on Demand database.

Recommended Resources


  1. Hall, K.D. (2010). Predicting metabolic adaptation, body weight change, and energy intake in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 298(3):E449-66. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00559.2009
  2. Hall, K.D., Sacks, G., Chandramohan, D., Chow, C.C., Wang, Y.C., Gortmaker, S.L., & Swinburn, B.A. (2011). Quantification of the effect of energy imbalance on bodyweight. The Lancet, 378(9793):826-837. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60812-X
  3. Kabasakalis, A., Tsalis, G., Zafrana, E., Loupos, D., & Mougios, V. (2014). Effects of endurance and high-intensity swimming exercise on the redox status of adolescent male and female swimmers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 32(8): 747-756. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2013.850595
  4. Powers, S.K., Nelson, W.B., & Hudson, M.B. (2010). Exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans: cause and consequences. Free Radic Biol Med, 51(5):942-50. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2010.12.009
  5. Scott, C.B. (2011). Quantifying the immediate recovery energy expenditure of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res, 25(4):1159-63. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d64eb5
  6. Scott, C.B., Littlefield, N.D., Chason, J.D., Bunker, M.P., & Asselin, E.M. (2006). Differences in oxygen uptake but equivalent energy expenditure between a brief bout of cycling and running. Nutr Metab (Lond), 3:1.
  7. Scott, C.B., Fountaine, C. (2013). Estimating the energy costs of intermittent exercise. J Hum Kinet, 38:107-13. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2013-0050


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO). Retrieved from http:// href=”http:// target=”_new”>Accessibility Statement
  2. Privacy Policy
  3. Sports Fitness Advisor. (2014). Retrieved from Privacy Policy

HWE 340 Exercise and Physiology
Week Two Guidance

Please click on the PowerPoint symbol to download this week’s lecture, or click hereto open a PDF version of the lecture.

Remember, all work is checked for plagiarism. I will remind the class of this, because it happens and when it does, it puts your integrity and grade at risk.

Your initial discussion thread is due on Day 3 (Thursday) and you have until Day 7 (Monday) to respond to your classmates. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon above for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.

Aerobic Versus Anaerobic: What is the Difference? [CLOs: 2, 3, 5] [WLOs: 1, 3]

After reading Chapter 5 and 6 in the course text and viewing Physical Training Strategies: Preparing for a Purpose: Energy System in the Body, select one of the following: a triathlete, a football player, a gymnast, and one phase of their sport. For example, if you choose the triathlete you can choose the cycling phase of their activity, or if you choose the football player, you could choose the sprint phase of their activity, or if you choose the gymnast, you may choose the backflip phase of their activity.

  • As your athlete performs the chosen activity, discuss whether rapid or slow glycolysis is the most effective means of energy transfer?
  • What physiological factors contributed to your analysis (e.g. hydrogen release, lactate formation, glucose catabolism, etc.)?
  • Explain the benefits of lactate for optimal performance of the chosen activity.

Your research and claims must be supported by your course text and a minimum of two additional scholarly sources. Use proper APA formatting for in-text citations and references as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Guided Response: Review some of your classmates’ posts. Identify at least two classmates who chose a different athlete than you chose and analyze the appropriateness of the type of glycolysis they discussed. Then, explain if you agree with the benefits of lactate identified for their chosen activity. Support your reasoning for each response to your classmates with at least one scholarly source.

week 2 discussion 2

This discussion will has three parts:

Part One: Your initial post as The Training Consultant (Due Day 3)
Before completing this discussion, watch Cell Metabolism and Respiration. Then, imagine that you are a training consultant for a professional soccer player. The soccer player wants to know how the body creates ATP from fat, protein and carbohydrates. In your post explain:

  • Fat metabolism
  • Protein metabolism
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • The benefits of having different energy sources

Your research and claims must be supported by your course text and a minimum of two additional scholarly sources. Use proper APA formatting for in-text citations and references as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Guided Response:

Part Two: Your reply as The Soccer Player (Due Day 5)
Review some of your classmates’ posts. Imagine that you are the soccer player receiving this information from the consultant (your classmate). What questions do you have for the consultant? Do you agree with the information provided? Why or why not?

Respond to at least one of your classmates. Support your reasoning with at least one scholarly source.

Part Three: Your rebuttal as the Training Consultant (Due Day 7)
Rebut at least one of your classmates’ responses to your initial post. Support your reasoning with at least one scholarly source.

Requirements: .doc file

students discussion my answer should be like these

Respond to at least one of your classmates. Support your reasoning with at least one scholarly source.

Carmen Greene

Jan 14, 2021 at 11:47 AM

Week 2 – Discussion 2 (Energy Sources)

Fat Metabolism

You play a sport that requires rapid bursts of energy or ATP, and you’re wondering how your body generates that energy from the macronutrients that you eat: fat, protein, and carbohydrates. Let me begin with fat. Stored fat provides almost unlimited energy, more so than carbohydrates. Stored fat yields about 60,000 to 100,000 kcal of energy in your fat cells and about 3000 kcal from the triacylglycerol (the main component of fat) stored in your muscles. In comparison, carbohydrates only yield about 2000 kcal to your energy reserves. The way this energy is obtained is from fat metabolism. This means that in your fat, you have triacylglycerols, that with the help of the enzyme lipase, will break down into fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids are carried away in the blood circulation and taken to tissues. The glycerol is taken to the muscle fibers, becomes glucose, and the stored triacylglycerols in the muscle break down into glycerol and fatty acids. That is when energy is released (Katch et al., 2015).

One generally thinks of carbohydrates as the preferred fuel source for running sports, but a 2019 United Kingdom study of soccer players found that if fat is the preferred source of fuel, the athlete may be at less risk of depleting their muscle glycogen stores, making them less tired as opposed to someone who prefers carbohydrates as fuel as they may exhaust their stores sooner, affecting their running (Randell et al., 2019).

Protein Metabolism

Next, we’ll discuss protein. Amino acids are the units that make up proteins. With more prolonged activities such as a soccer match, amino acids convert to a form that provides energy. It happens that nitrogen is removed from the amino acid molecule in the liver and the muscle cells. The nitrogen then attaches itself to an acceptor acid from a new amino acid. ATP is formed when the amino acid loses its nitrogen-containing amine group. So, in essence, the muscle taps energy from the by-products of donor amino acids. So, consuming protein can help with your sport. A 2016 study comparing senior elite soccer players to elite youth players found that the senior players tended not to meet the carbohydrate recommended requirement but compensated with a higher protein intake on match and training days. The youth players met CHO recommendations on match, postmatch, rest, and exercise days but also met or exceeded protein recommendations and both did fine (Bettonviel et al., 2016).

Carbohydrate Metabolism

And lastly, we’ll discuss carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are the only macronutrients that generate ATP energy with or without oxygen. This is very helpful in your sport because soccer requires rapid energy release above the levels supplied with your aerobic metabolic reactions. Carbohydrate metabolism is called glycolysis and yields energy. With glycolysis, glycogen is converted to lactic acid with a series of 10 enzyme chemical reactions. The lactic acid is used for energy, and one form is faster and does not require oxygen, and is called “rapid anaerobic glycolysis.” The other does require oxygen and is called “slower aerobic glycolysis.” Lactate is considered a valuable waste product of metabolism as it accumulates with intense activity (Katch et al., 2015).

Benefits of Different Energy Sources

I hope you can see that it is beneficial for you to have a well-balanced diet of healthy fats, lean proteins, and complex carbohydrates as they all provide the needed energy for your soccer career. Carbohydrates replenish depleted energy reserves quicker, but fat and proteins should not be neglected. They play an important role, as well. I hope you consider all three macronutrients when preparing and training for your sport, and I wish you much success.


Bettonviel A, E. O., Brinkmans N, Y. J., Russcher, K., Wardenaar, F. C., & Witard, O. C. (2016). Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post- Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 26(3), 285–293.…

Katch, V., McArdle, W., & Katch, F. (2015). Essentials of exercise physiology. (5th ed.). Retrieved from


Dominique Ivory

Jan 14, 2021 at 4:02 PM

Evening from Italy,

How does the body create ATP from fat, protein and carbohydrates?

ATP is produced by the oxidative reactions in the cytoplasm and mitochondrion of the cell, where carbohydrates, proteins and fats undergo metabolic reactions collectively called cellular respiration.

  • Fat and Carbohydrate metabolism are the two major sources used during exercise. Based on the duration and intensity of the exercise degree of prior physical conditioning, and the composition of an athlete’s diet that is consumed. Carbs are very unique because they generate ATP energy with or even without oxygen. Gylcolysis is what takes place during the carbohydrate metabolism phase. The fat metabolism phase is required during quick burst of energy. The quick spurts of energy are made possible through the type of diet that an athlete is willing to maintain. Bottom line, energy is established from the fat metabolism phase
  • Protein metabolism is formed by an amino acid chain. Sports that are more extensive in duration allow the proteins to form ATP through the loss of a nitrogen molecule.
  • The benefits of having different energy sources is vital, all of the energy sources are comprised for different purposes and for specific times. The body will allow certain metabolisms to be released based on the duration of the exercise being performed or when the liver is sensing that a certain supplement is missing that is needed for the body to continue to perform naturally the way it needs to. Different metabolisms will be released based on the signal of the reserve units of whatever molecule that has been utilized and more needs to be produced within the body. All metabolisms have their function and are very important to the proper working system of the body.

Katch, V., McArdle, W., & Katch, F. (2015). Essentials of exercise physiology. (5th ed.). Retrieved from