citing primary sources using apa style format H e a l t h M e d i c a l
Directions: Answer all (eleven) questions in short essay format. Each
answer cannot exceed 150-250 words (17 to 28 lines), support your statements by
citing primary sources using APA style format at the end of each answer.
Wikipedia is not a reliable source for academic writing or research and will
not be accepted. Be brief. Directly answer the question. Articulate a coherent, organized,
and clear answer with comprehensive knowledge.
Rationale for questions (1 through 4): Florida Beaches are
suffering from a massive algal bloom that formed in Lake Okeechobee
1. When heavy rains threaten to flood crops and
lakeside towns south of Lake Okeechobee (FL, USA), water from the 500,000-acre
everglades agricultural area (EAA) is pumped north into the lake. In
3-5 sentences, explain why pumping this water into Lake Okeechobee contributes
to the formation of harmful algal blooms.
2. What Meteorological factors impact the seasonal recurrence of
harmful algal blooms in South Florida? Answer must be explained in
relationship of each factor in the development of the harmful algal bloom.
3. What are the adverse health effects from exposure to water bodies
contaminated with blue-green algae? -Answer must explain (what is the
toxin route of exposure), and the specific health effect from those exposures
4. Provide a mitigation and prevention strategy to protect coastal
Florida communities from exposure to harmful algal blooms. -Answer
must explain the relationship of each strategy used for the specific outcome of
mitigating or preventing harmful algal blooms.
Rationale for questions (5 through 8): Fossil fuels – coal,
natural gas, and oil – supply the vast majority of our energy needs, including
more than two- thirds of US. electricity generation. They have powered America
for more than a century, but their production and use have a significant health
and environmental impacts, including air and water pollution, environmental
degradation, and global warming.
5. Explain how global warming impacts the spread of infectious
disease. – Answer must explain the cause-and-effect relationship
between global warming and the pathogen.
6. Nuclear power is an alternative energy source
to fossil fuels. For instance. France derives about 75% of its electricity from
nuclear energy. Compared to fossil fuels, explain how nuclear power
is better for Earth’s climate.
7. Coastal communities are vulnerable to climate change.
What are the challenges faced by coastal communities from sea level
rise and warming ocean temperatures?
8. A coastal community has asked you to develop a climate adaptation
strategy to reduce their vulnerability to the harmful effects of sea level
rise. Provide an adaptation strategy that will reduce their vulnerability to
the challenges already described on last question (answer #7).
Directions for questions (9 through 10): Read the NY Story, “The invisible Catastrophe”
describing the Aliso Canyon gas leak and the largest methane leak in US history.
Then watch the “PBS News Hour Report” to become familiar with this
9. Compare the emergency response to the methane gas leak near
Porter Ranch, Los Angeles, California to the water crisis in Flint, Michigan.
(a) How was the
emergency response similar?
(b) How was the
emergency response different?
10. Explain why evacuation was deemed necessary to insure the health
or safety of Porter Ranch residents, but not for Flint, MI residents. Be specific to the inherent danger of the disaster.
Rationale for question 11: The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) is characterized by the fusion
of the digital, biological, and physical worlds, as well as the growing
utilization of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, cloud
computing, robotics, 3D printing, the Internet, and advance wireless
technologies, among others.
11. How can the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) improve disaster
management? – The answer must
include a specific example of a disaster and a specific application of
technology from the 4IR that can improve response or management of your