effective implementation also often involves multiple tasks occurring H e a l t h M e d i c a l
4 days ago
RE: Discussion – Week 9
My campaign aims to promote the increased uptake by elderly persons (aged 65 years or over) in Harris county of basic preventive health services.
1. Post a brief explanation of how you might implement your public health campaign.
Implementation is the act of putting a thing (e.g., plan or policy) into effect (Implementation, n.d.). In communication campaigns, Implementation is the third stage in the cyclical/iterative marketing process (sometimes called the communication wheel) (Resnick & Siegel, 2013, pp. 116-117; Liller, Corvin, & Venkatachalam, 2018, pp. 57-58), often involving such details such as which parties shall engage in which activities and according to a certain timeline or schedule (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2015; ACF, n.d.; Compass, n.d.).
Implementation is important because, even the most well-crafted plan requires faithful implementation (sometimes called “fidelity”) (Hill & Erickson, 2019) in order to bring about the planned or intended effect (Durlak, 1998).
In a communication campaign, implementation can take a variety of forms, but, at a minimum, it usually involves having the necessary communication materials in hand at the beginning of the implementation stage (CRS.org, n.d.). It also generally involves thoughtful selection and training of staff and the delegation of tasks (FAO, n.d.). An effective implementation also often involves multiple tasks occurring at any given time (CDC, 2015).
Two hallmarks of successful implementation generally and especially for my campaign are: 1) partnerships and 2) a rigorously established technical package (Frieden, 2014).
I would commence implementation of the campaign first by reaching out to clinics and other human services providers in Harris county to enlist their aid in providing the promotional/educational materials that we’d have previously developed. I would also set up discussions of how, if at all, they might be willing and able to connect their electronic medical records (EMRs) to an automated messaging service for reminders (as by email, FrontlineSMS, Clickatell, BulkSMS, etc.) (CRS.org, n.d.).
In addition, outside of clinics, I would implement advertising, as at bus stops, magazine ads, commercial air time, retirement home billboards, etc. To whatever extent possible, I would try to target elderly persons in these forms of media. This would be in addition to the social media arm of the campaign which we would track using impressions/analytics (Liller, Corvin, & Venkatachalam, 2018, pp. 62)
2. Explain two potential barriers which might impact the implementation process and one way you might address one barrier.
I can think of two categories of barriers: one logistical and the other ethical/legal.
Conceivably, the implementation process could stall quite early for a few logistical reasons. First, the clinics, nursing homes, and other providers to whom our campaign would reach out may simply have no interest in cooperating with the campaign. Second, they might not have the time, personnel, or other resources necessary to integrate their capacities with our campaign. For instance, any talk of integrating patient medical records into some external, automated reminder mechanism might involve more IT specialty or work than they would care to contemplate, much less do. Indeed, given the United States’ zealous protection of patient privacy, any talk of using EMRs at all might prompt disinterest in the campaign’s idea. Whatever feedback we receive we would take into consideration and then take on a flexible, collaborative decision-making approach (Weiss, Lillefjell, & Magnus, 2016) in addressing any technical or other challenges, although anticipating the nature and magnitude of such issues in advance is difficult until the implementation actually begins.
The ethical or legal obstacle to implementation involves concerns surrounding liability. At its core, the campaign offers to send reminders and seeks to motivate people to take up the least pleasant service (i.e., colonoscopy). These presents at least two questions of possible liability worthy of consideration in advance.
–Does agreeing to remind amount to a duty to remind?
What if a patient agrees to receive reminders and then, for whatever reason, we fail to send one? If we forget or suffer a technical glitch or some other kind of error possibly on our end that results in no reminder gets sent? And then, what if the patient gets hospitalized, for, say, an influenza infection arguably because we offered to send the vaccination reminder but then failed to do so? Offering to send the reminder arguably creates a reasonable expectation in the mind of the patient that if he hasn’t received any reminders recently then he must up to date on all of his basic preventive services. In a tortious sense, we should consider the possibility that offering and agreeing to send reminders might, unless explicitly stated otherwise, tacitly amount to a sort of duty to send them and to send them successfully, if the patient accepts our offer.
–It’s our recommendation, but whose risk?
Informing elderly persons that they are recommended to receive vaccinations seems uncontroversial. However, emotional/motivational appeal that they take up colonoscopy is fraught with two ethical considerations. First, emotional/motivational appeal is not merely informative; it amounts to a kind of tacit recommendation by our campaign (in other words, we are not merely informing the patients that they are recommended to get it, but we are ourselves recommending it). Second, the procedure is not without risks (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2020; Ko, 2018). If a patient takes up a colonoscopy because of exposure to our campaign’s motivational/emotional message but then suffers some adverse effect (e.g., rectal perforation), are we at least partially at fault? Might we reduce such liability on our part by mentioning such risks inherent to colonoscopy? And if so, might mentioning such risks nevertheless also reduce the motivational appeal of the campaign and thereby compromise the effort’s impact or success?
These are difficult questions to answer, but I imagine that, at a minimum, answering them would surely involve consultation with the relevant legal experts and, perhaps as well, some form of cost-benefit analysis of various legal/ethical choices’ impact(s) on the campaign’s overall cost and likely overall success.
Catholic Relief Services [CRS.org]. (n.d.). Communication Toolbox: Practical Guidance for Program Managers to Improve Communication with Participants and Community Members. Retrieved October 26, 2020, from Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community,17(2), 5-18. doi:10.1300/j005v17n02_02
Frieden, T. R. (2014). Six Components Necessary for Effective Public Health Program Implementation. American Journal of Public Health,104(1), 17-22. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301608
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Hill, H. C., & Erickson, A. (2019). Using Implementation Fidelity to Aid in Interpreting Program Impacts: A Brief Review. Educational Researcher,48(9), 590-598. doi:10.3102/0013189×19891436
Implementation [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved October 26, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2018.01.010
4 days ago
RE: Dominique Morgan’s reply to Discussion – Week 9
Post a brief explanation of how you might implement your public health campaign.
Implementation is the phase of a campaign or initiative that brings all the research, planning, and preparation together to reach the intended objectives (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2010). To implement the food insecurity campaign, the campaign staff will start by putting into place the communication/media plan to get information out using social media, TV, and radio. The campaign will also coordinate with stakeholders and partners to get the campaign materials out to the public, assess their citizens’ food insecurity, and provide resources and support. The campaign staff and partners are charged with hosting various forums and discussions with communities to educate them and bring awareness to what food insecurity is and ways to combat it. These will occur in various communities’ medical facilities, schools, public health departments, faith-based organizations, nonprofits, and more.
Also included in the implementation is continual evaluation throughout the campaign. Evaluation is vital to gauge how an initiative meets the objectives and goals (Resnick & Siegel, 2013). Evaluation is included in the planning phase and carried out through implementation because it can alleviate some potential problems and create more substantial, effective interventions (Resnick & Siegel, 2013). Evaluation throughout the life of the campaign will help to explain why the initiative is effective from the messaging and audience segmentation to the objectives (Glanz et al., 2015).
Then explain two potential barriers which might impact the implementation process and one way you might address one barrier.
Two barriers that might impact the implementation process are funding challenges and finding enough staff and partners to carry out the campaign. Consistent underfunding of public health programs is a reoccurring challenge (Trust for America’s Health, 2019). Changes to funding can include having a limited budget, having a hard time securing outside funding, funding sources backing out or contributing less than projected, or challenges determining how to allocate funds to various parts of the initiative. For example, the campaign may estimate a certain amount of funding for TV, radio, and printed materials. Due to unforeseen increases in media costs, the campaign may have to adjust funding in other areas like not getting certain ads spots or deduct funding from the printed materials.
The other potential barrier is finding enough staff and partners and stakeholders to help carry out the campaign. Since the campaign targets all of Georgia, there must be a central, localized staff, but also partners in various regions of the state. Partners need to be at local health departments, schools, nonprofits, and faith-based organizations to help get the information out and provide services. One way to address the barrier of finding enough program staff and partners is to include and involve them in all phases of the campaign’s planning. To do this, the campaign will seek out their input on the communities they serve including the best ways to reach them, advice on program materials and media, and then with providing resources and support. This will show the partners and stakeholders their value to the campaign’s initiative and their impact on the overall success of their communities.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Implementation. 3 days ago
RE: Discussion – Week 9
Explanation of how to implement a Coronavirus Campaign
Implementation can be defined as “the process of putting to use or integrating evidence-based interventions within a setting (Glanz, Rimer, & Viswanath, 2015). In implementing the coronavirus campaign, first the campaign committee would make sure to remember the overall goal of the campaign which is to help decrease and stop the spread of the coronavirus. The campaign committee would then make sure that the target audience remains the focus of the campaign. It is important to make sure that all who have partnered with the campaign committee are all on board and have all of the information ready to merge and have a successful campaign. The next steps in implementing the coronavirus campaign would be to ensure that the slogans used on the social media sites and television advertisements are enticing enough to become embedded in people heads to protect themselves and others when out in the community, by washing their hands, wearing mask and taking all of the precautionary safety steps when being around others in the community.
Also, when implementing the coronavirus campaign, there will be the implementation of a coronavirus task force within the campaign committee. The task force will be main goal is to evaluate the campaign. This task force will be responsible for monitoring the progress of the campaign. The task force will also be responsible for analyzing data to see if the campaign is effective in decreasing the spread of the coronavirus. The task force will lastly be responsible for making any corrections needed during the campaign that could be affecting the overall goal of the campaign.
Two potential barriers which might impact the implementation process
One potential barrier that might impact the implementation process of the campaign would be lack of coordination between the coronavirus committee and the other partners enlisted to ensure a successful campaign. An example of this would be the campaign committee and partners having different dates as to when to launch the campaign. The second potential barrier in the implementation of the coronavirus campaign could be the cost of advertisement increasing. An example of advertisement increasing would be if the campaign committee did not lock in a specific amount with a contractor on how much they would charge for television advertisements and the fee started to increase. Also, if the campaign committee decided that they have found another avenue to reach the target group through advertisement but the campaign committee did not originally budget for that specific avenue to advertise. These two potential barriers could be detrimental to the overall success of the campaign.
One way you might address one barrier.
One way to address the potential barrier of the cost of advertisement in the coronavirus campaign would be to make sure that there are different funding resources. The campaign committee could also make sure that there is an ongoing fundraiser during the campaign to ensure that there is always money available to be used if there are cost increases during the campaign such as advertisement fees.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
3 days ago
Grace Anderson RE: Discussion – Week 9
How To Implement Public Health Campaign
There will be several steps and tasks to be completed in order to implement a public health campaign. Steps and tasks needed for a successful implementation include but are not limited to producing program materials, holding public meetings, potential signing of risk control plans, providing fact sheets, holding exhibits (ORA Food Show/Health Fair), and creating media advocacy. Producing program materials would be an item that is provided at my current job career at my local health department. There are already hand washing signs, nail brushes, and top 5 reportable illnesses posters; theses signs and posters are printed in multiple languages (English, Spanish, Korean). “Information may translate into different languages, include audio and visual features to facilitate understanding, and direct patients to available in-person resources” (Parker & Thorson, 2008, p. 420). Holding public meetings would entail getting a member from every food establishment to be present. According to Glanz et al (2015) social marketing can be beneficial in changing normative behaviors. Having a public meeting will not only allow networking for the establishments, but it will allow for open conversation between the campaign and the community in order to get feedback and reassess the effectiveness of its efforts. The signing of risk control plans provides a quick turn around to change behavior and comply. This is another item that is provided in my current position that can be utilized. Providing fact sheets would include printing off fact sheets in regards to the number of food borne illnesses a year and the top 5 causes of food-borne illnesses. Holding exhibits would include holding a booth at the Oklahoma Restaurant Association Food Show, and holding a booth at local health fairs. At these booths; posters, signs, and promotional items (nail brushes, pens, etc) can be provided free of charge. There is the potential to quiz people for a prize, in order to create a fun learning environment. Creating media advocacy could be as simple as having the media department at work run videos, posts, or pictures on our social media pages. Or be as complex as having radio stations and local news channels run an ad.
Two Potential Barriers To Impact the Implementation
One potential barrier that could impact the implementation process of the public health campaign is creating media advocacy. The main component of the public health campaign is increasing hand washing compliance in order to reduce the number of food borne illnesses caused from food handlers in restaurants. The reason this could impact the implementation is due to the current COVID-19 and upcoming flu season. Therefore it may be viewed that people are already aware of the seriousness of hand washing as a way to cut down on disease and illnesses. One way this barrier could be addressed is to stress the importance of food borne illness and that it is often an preventable and underreported illness. Another way to combat this would to have completed the campaign during the month of September, as that is National Food Safety Education Month.
Another potential barrier that could impact the implementation process of the public health campaign is the food establishments signing of risk control plans. The risk control plan states that the establishment has 14 days to correct the violation and that failure to do so can result in enforcement. Due to how the risk control plan states that the establishment only has 14 days to correct the violation or they could face enforcement (in my jurisdiction it will be tickets), they may be hesitant to sign the documents due to corporate and their policies. In addition, managers/supervisors may get the feeling that the company is then admitting guilt if something were to happen. Furthermore, the supervisor or manager on duty may feel that if they sign the document and then an employee fails to wash their hands and they are ticketed, that their employer may retaliate and fire them. However, Resnick & Siegel (2013) state that often times social change will not occur until laws and policies are put into place in order to have an enforceable behavior change.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practice (Jossey-Bass Public Health) (5th ed.). Jossey-Bass.
PhD, J. P. C., & PhD, T. E. (2008b). Health Communication in the New Media Landscape (1st ed.). Springer Publishing Company.
Resnick, E. A., & Siegel, M. (2013). Marketing Public Health. Jones & Bartlett Learning.