identify one observable derived modern homo sapiens trait W r i t i n g

identify one observable derived modern homo sapiens trait W r i t i n g

The purpose of this lab is for you to infer appropriate conclusions about fossil hominins based on the analysis of qualitative and quantitative empirical data and identify key physical (morphological), physiological (functional), and behavioral traits in human fossil ancestors.

you become familiar with the following important content knowledge in anthropology:

  • later Homo and Homo sapiens evolution
  • hypotheses to explain the origins of modern humans
  • infer specific behaviors based on anatomical traits
  • identify anatomical similarities and differences in the later members of the genus Homo
  • identify anatomical traits used to identify modern Homo sapiens in the paleoanthropological record
  • Print the Lab 12 worksheet and write-in your answers OR open the lab in Adobe (or whatever pdf. reader you use) and type-in your answers using the text-box function
  • Step 2: Open the Lab 12 workstations.

Kabwe, Zambia (Africa), ~275-325 kya

Homo heidlebergensis by Geospatial and Virtual Archaeology Lab and Studio on Sketchfab

Steinheim, Germany, 250-350 kya

Homo heidelbergensis (Steinheim skull)(1979rp45) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Florisbad, Orange Free State, South Africa, 250-350 kya

Homo heidelbergensis (Florisbad) (1979rp24) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Workstation 2: The Neanderthals

Instructions:

  • Observe the 3D models of the Neanderthals below.
  • Compare and contrast the two crania. How are they similar? How are they different? Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.
  • Identify three observable traits that are present on both crania that are derived traits in Neanderthals. Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.

La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France, 47-56 kya

(433rp7) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Gibraltar 1, ~35 kya, found in Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar (one of the youngest Neanderthal fossils, ~35 kya is super recent!!)

Gibraltar 1 Skull with Texture by Wellesley College on Sketchfab

Workstation 3: Neanderthals vs. Modern Homo sapiens

Instructions:

  • Observe the 3D models of mandibles from a Neanderthal and a modern Homo sapiens below.
  • Compare and contrast the two samples. How are they similar? How are they different? Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.
  • Identify one observable trait that is present on the Neanderthal mandible, but not present on the modern Homo sapiens mandible. Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.
  • Identify one observable trait that is present on the modern Homo sapiens mandible, but not present on the Neanderthal mandible. Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.

Spy Cave, Namur, Belgium, ~40 kya (Neanderthal)

(Spy 2) Mandible (433rp20) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Hotu Cave, Iran, ~9,900 – 7,200 years before present (modern Homo sapiens)

Homo sapiens (Hotu Cave) (1979rp28) – mandible by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Workstation 4: Evolution of Homo sapiens

As with other transitions in hominin evolution, modern traits do not appear fully formed or all at once. The traits common to modern Homo sapiens appeared in a mosaic manner. In this workstation, you will look at how our skull anatomy has changed over time and you will also observe geographic variation in our species.

Instructions:

  • Observe the 3D models of modern Homo sapiens below. (Some of the models are a little dark. Just do the best you can.)
  • Describe how the cranial morphology in modern Homo sapiens has evolved (changed) over time based on your observations of the samples below. Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.
  • Identify one observable derived modern Homo sapiens trait that all the crania share. Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.
  • Which hypothesis to explain the origins of modern Homo sapiens is best supported by the morphology of these crania (Multiregional or Out of Africa)? Please be cognizant of the times and geographical areas represented by the samples. Please explain your answer and any limitations associated with the data (aside from the small sample size). Record your response on the Lab 12 worksheet.

Herto: Middle Awash, Ethiopia, ~160 kya

Homo sapiens Cranium by UCFanthropology on Sketchfab

Skhul 5 sample: Mugharet es-Skhul, Wadi el-Mughara, Israel, 80-120 kya

Homo sapiens Skhul 5 (2501.1rp37-1) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Wajak, East Java, Indonesia, ~28-38 kya

Homo sapiens (Wadjak 1) (1979rp11) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

Cro-Magnon, Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France ~ 27 kya

Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon I) Skull (1979rp16-1) by RLA Archaeology on Sketchfab

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