text citation must include page numbers like H u m a n i t i e s

text citation must include page numbers like H u m a n i t i e s

Subject : Archaeology

Level of Study : Masters

Target Grade : Masters Distinction

Length: 2500 Words (~10 pages)

Delivery Time : 14 Days

Time for requesting changes : Standard 7 days

Paper instructions : Subject:

Archaeology FILES: https://we.tl/t-S58ARl4cm3


Elite Status

Referencing Style:

Harvard style, in text citation must include page numbers like (Clarke, 2017, pg.77), figures must be cited.

List references alphabetically by author and date.


UK English – advanced vocabulary and writing style according to universities master’s level

Number of References:

around 20 references



Subheadings for discussion of each point – (8 figures minimum must be included)

Conclusion: brief summary


Deadline to receive this essay:


Words count:

2500 words (excluding the references page, tables, and figure captions)

Academic level and grade:

Master’s level – distinction

-Please it is important to send me a draft after 1 week exactly so I can

review the essay in advance to avoid any delays with this tight

deadline. Also, please I am having problems to contact you or the writer

with my previous order, please reply back to my

emails or whatsapp texts.

-The essay must be 2500 words (excluding bibliography, illustrations, figure captions).

-Mainly: This essay asks for a close SPECIFIC CRITICAL analysis of

archaeological evidence of two specific case studies relevant to the

topic. Case studies MUST be selected from the suggested list. Select two

specific works that are substantial, choose from

the list two studies that contain specific evidence relevant to the

issue. You will need to investigate other works beyond your two core

readings; other studies must be discussed in relevance to the topic and

critically analyzed. focus on discussing the core

2 studies specifically with detailed critical analysis, figures,

comparison and contrasts of the archaeological evidence. also, refer to

other case studies and, of course, to general readings.

-The main point is interpreting archaeological evidence. Emphasize

primary data (e.g. tables, figures, sample sizes, etc.). Be specific.

-Add 8 figures to explain points. Figure means a drawing, a photo, a

graph, or a table. Give them Figure Numbers & refer to them in the

text. Write captions for each Figure, explaining how the figure

illustrates a point made in your essay. Be sure to put in

the caption the exact source of the Figure.

-Original thinking and critical discussion of evidence &

interpretation are important. The essay MUST include critical analysis

of archaeological evidence, discoveries, and interpretation of primary


-The words count MUST be mostly about the specific arguments relevant to

the topic and critical discussion of the points NOT on general

overviews or definitions as those should be mentioned briefly in few

statements only.

-From the suggested case studies and other studies; discuss primary

evidence to demonstrate the points and present a critical analysis of

the evidence, evaluate and add STATISTICAL ANALYSIS of data and results,

and present your opinion. Demonstrate different

perspectives about the point and discuss the theory presented by each

scholar, compare and contrast, support your discussion with a reference

of a primary study or evidence.


Imagine that you are a friend of the authors of two case studies. They

have asked you to read their work and suggest improvements. Compare and

contrast two case studies, to show how archaeologists use evidence to

address research questions. Discuss how the

evidence, analysis and interpretations of the authors are affected by:

excavation methods, sampling, stratigraphy, chronology, and site

formation. Are the authors clear about these issues, in making their

points? Would you suggest changes? What would they


Archaeologists often talk about elites, when discussing social change

and political structure – for example, the emergence of states. How is

elite status identified by archaeologists? In burials, it is typically

inferred by looking at variables such as tomb

location; tomb characteristics; tomb size; body treatment; and grave

goods (quantity, diversity, types). “Eliteness” is inferred from

unusually elaborate attributes of these variables – eg, special

locations; built tombs; large tombs; special body treatment;

numerous, elaborate, or prestigious grave goods. Sometimes elite status

is obvious, as with sites where all graves were those of elites buried

in a special place. At other times, it is much less obvious, and

inferences are made according to the range of variation

in the attributes of graves and grave goods. In that situation,

archaeologists identify distributions of attributes. Some

characteristics will be fairly ubiquitous, occurring among nearly all

graves (eg, pit burial, plain pots). Against this background, they

identify graves with characteristics that stand out (eg, elaborate

tombs, exceptional items). Often, we are forced to wonder whether an

“exceptional” burial is an accident of discovery – a sampling problem.

How can we be sure it isn’t an accident? That is

where statistics comes in. Much depends on having a large sample size.

An archaeologist’s frame of reference affects his or her interpretations

of burial evidence; but burials are often the outcome of culturally

specific beliefs and ritual practices very different from our own.

“Eliteness” or “non-eliteness” is not all that is

at work in funerals – not by any means – and does not explain

everything we see.

Read: Orton, C. 2000. Sampling in Archaeology. Cambridge: CUP., Chapter

3: “If this is the sample, what was the population?” In the studies

below, what is the sample size? How is status identified?

Essay Title: Elite Status

Discussion points that MUST be included:

How have archaeologists inferred “elite status” from archaeological evidence?

Illustrate with two case studies. In each, what is the evidence and what methods were used to analyze it?

How were methods and evidence affected by: excavation or survey

strategies, sampling, stratigraphy, chronology, and site formation?

Are there ambiguities in the evidence?

Are interpretations persuasive? Explain.

What changes would you suggest, to improve the studies?

-Those points MUST be discussed with a brief general discussion then a

detailed analyses of the 2 core studies from the list mainly, other

relevant studies must be discussed to answer these questions. 8 figures

must be included and referred to in text to highlight

specific points about these questions. The argument must be backed up

with specific evidence which MUST BE INTERPRETED in terms of sample

size, evaluating significance, complications, limitations, site

formation and primary data analysis from various studies.

Extensive reading and using a wide range of studies to support

arguments, critical analysis and evaluating methods and results, using

case studies as examples to present the techniques used and other

points, use statistical analysis of results of the listed

studies, compare and contrast theories, present the pitfalls and issues

for each point, present your opinion with using specific studies to

back up the points.

List of Suggested Case Studies:

Choose from the list 2 core studies for the main specific discussion and

critical analysis of archaeological evidence. Refer to other studies

relevant to the topic briefly. I have attached most of these articles

and the “Sampling in Archaeology” book. Please

see the attached files.

-Brown, J. A. 1981. ‘The search for rank in prehistoric burials’, in R.

Chapman, I. Kinnes and K. Randsborg (eds), The Archaeology of Death

(Cambridge) 25–38

-Harrington, S., Brookes, S., Semple, S., and Millard, A. 2020. Theatres

of Closure: Exploring Variability in Inhumation Burial in Early

Medieval Britain. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 30(3). 389–412.

< P. R. S. 1978. What do we know about the people buried in the

Royal Cemetery of Ur? Expedition 20 (1): 24-40. < An excellent

analysis of an old dataset.

-Saxe, A.A. 1971. Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices in a

Mesolithic Population from Wadi Halfa, Sudan. In Brown, J.A. (ed.)

Approaches to the Social Dimensions of Mortuary Practices. Memoirs of

the Society for American Archaeology 25, 39–57.

-Stevenson, A. 2009. Social relationships in predynastic burials. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 95, 175–92.

-Tainter, J. A., 1978. Mortuary practices and the study of prehistoric

social systems, in M. B. Schiffer, (ed.), Advances in Archaeological

Method and Theory 1 (New York, 1978), 105–41.

Further instructions:

-illustrations MUST be included at least 8 illustrations (tables or

figures) with a caption highlighting specific points and they must be

CITED. Illustrations should not be added randomly, most importantly

figures MUST be critically analyzed to correlate with

the main topic and must be used as evidence to back up the discussion

points of the essay and provide answers to the specific questions in the

essay. Figures must be numbered, refer the reader to the figures within

the text. (not included with the words count).

-be CRITICAL & ANALYTICAL; back up statements with reference to

specific EVIDENCE; assess quality of evidence. This will give weight and

power to your original ideas. Use background on evidence and discussed

the reflected issues.

-Use a wide range of references textbooks and research articles, including primary research articles and analyzing primary data.

-begin with overviews in textbooks (to ensure you have the bigger

picture), then move to thematic works. an extensive reading of research

articles and recent studies about the topic is required.

-Use the attached references in addition to other wide range references (books and research articles), around 20 references.

Please note: Wikipedia and Encyclopedia Britannica are not considered appropriate as major sources for university level writing.

-Be selective choose references relevant to the topic that can backup

answers to the argument points. Use textbooks and review articles for

the discussion, also primary studies that include primary archaeological

studies and evidence analysis to back up the


Please refer the essay to someone with a background in Archaeology as it

is a complex topic requires intensive reading and analysis. Please

contact me anytime if you have any further inquiries.