works less hard seeing B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

works less hard seeing B u s i n e s s F i n a n c e

C) Answer the following questions briefly:

1) A person can have power over you only if he or she controls something you desire. Explain the statement. Support your answer by a personal experience.                       

2) Because political tactics and activities can help meeting the organizational goals, some managers believe that political behaviors are necessary, and those who do not use it will not get their things done. Do you agree with the statement? If yes, why? If not, why not?             

3) Our perceptions affect the decision-making process. Elaborate 

4) Money is not the only source of work motivation, but it plays a key role. Identify the specific role of money as a motivator in each of the following theories of motivation: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory, The Two Factors of Motivation theory, Equity and Expectancy Theories, and the Motivational Fit Approach.              

D) Application Case Study(

Rami, Omar, and Sara sell for Made-for-You. As they are having lunch together Rami discovers that his commission rate is higher than Omar or Sara. When he excuses himself, Omar and Sara start talking about how Rami sells less than they do, has higher expenses, and has less time with the company than they do. They felt unfairness, and demotivated to continue selling the products. By the time they wanted to discuss how to respond to what happened, Rami returns to the table but which led them to slow down their burn.

1.Motivation can be enhanced by linking rewards to performance (as in pay-for-performance plans) and by administering rewards that are highly valued (as using cafeteria-style benefit plans). This is the suggestion of which of the following theories?

a.Hierarchy of Needs Theory

b.Expectancy Theory

c.Equity Theory

d.Two Factors of Motivation Theory

2.People desire to attain a balance between the ratios of their work rewards (outcomes) and their job contributions (inputs), and the corresponding ratios of comparison to others. This is the assumption of which of the following theories?

a.   Theory X and Theory Y

b.   Expectancy Theory

c.    Equity Theory

d.   Reinforcement Theory

3.According to equity theory, people change inequitable states to equitable ones in several ways:

a.Those who are underpaid may lower their inputs or raise their outcomes.

b.Those who are overpaid might do the opposite and either raise inputs or lower outcomes.

c.The third party may be unwilling to do some of the things that are necessary to respond behaviorally to inequities.

d.All the above

4.In the case given above, it appears that Rami is in a state of:

a.Equitable payment.

b.Valence.

c.Underpayment inequity.

d.Overpayment inequity.

5.Sara, in comparison to Rami, may be in the state of:

a.Equitable payment.

b.Low instrumentality.

c.Underpayment inequity.

d.Overpayment inequity.

6.What advice would you suggest to Rami’s future behavior based on his discovery?

a.He works less hard seeing there is little connection between performance and pay

b.He may adjust his thinking to the point of rationalizing receiving the higher pay.

c.He feels guilt and refuses the commission rate.

d.Do nothing but collect his check.

E) Activities: 

1) Match each of the following distortion to its perceptual shortcut:

a. Fail to take into consideration the individual differences.                                                             *Hallo Effect

b. Judging people based on one character.                                                                                              *Similarity

c. Speed in reading others which results in drawing un-accurate perspective.                         *Selectivity                                                                                    

2) Match each Criterion used by people when attributing a behavior to either external or internal causes:

a. The degree to which everyone behaves in a certain way in a given situation.                      *Distinctiveness

b. The degree to which the target person responds the same over time.                                   *Consensus

c. The level of uniqueness of the behavior of the target individual.                                              *Consistency