Contemporary issues in environmental geoscience with emphasis on


1. Three piezometers located 1000m apart, bottomed in the same horizontal aquifer.

Piezometer A is due South of B and C is to the East of line AB.

The surface elevation at ABC is 95, 110, and 130m respectively. The depth of water in A is 5 m, B 30m, and C 35m. 

Determine the direction of groundwater flow. Show the triangle ABC.

2. The following field notes were taken at a nest of piezometers a,b,c installed side by side at a single site Piezometer a. b. c.

Elevation at surface (masl) 450 450 450

Depth of piezometer (m) 150 100 50

Depth of water (m) 27 47 30

Let A, B, C refer to the points of measurement of piezometers a, b, c.

Calculate the;

a. The hydraulic head at A, B, C in meters. 

b. The pressure head at A, B, C in meters. 

c. The elevation head at A, B, C in meters.


For Geoscientists and Environmental Scientists with knowledge in Water Resources Management